Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

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ziu
Posts: 28
Joined: Sat Aug 17, 2013 8:46 pm

Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby ziu » Tue Aug 20, 2013 9:13 pm

Hello,
I am presently trying to evaluate the performance of best of class GPU BVH ray tracing algorithms for real-time rendering. Of these the work by Luebke, Pantaleoni, Karras, and Garanzha stood out.

The only open source implementation I could find of these was Pantaleoni's HLBVH which is provided as an API on Google Code. So I tried making a prototype which ray traced an OBJ of, say, Buddha to gauge construction and rendering performance. It took me some effort integrating several components to get the API to do its motions. Then I found that scene traversal code was basically missing from the API so I made my own based on one of the provided API tests. However the rendering performance results I get are terrible. 0.68 FPS @ 512x512 on a GeForce GTX 660 Ti.

In case you are interested I placed the entire project here:
https://bitbucket.org/vasc/nih

As for the CUDA traversal code I am using...

Code: Select all

__device__
bool AABBtest(const nih::Bbox3f bbox, const nih::Vector3f orig, const nih::Vector3f idir, float2* ptnf) {
        const nih::Vector3f Min = (bbox.m_min-orig)*idir;
        const nih::Vector3f Max = (bbox.m_max-orig)*idir;

        const nih::Vector3f t1 = min(Min, Max), t2 = max(Min, Max);
        const float2 t = make_float2(max(max(t1.x[0], t1.x[1]), t1.x[2]), min(min(t2.x[0], t2.x[1]), t2.x[2]));
        *ptnf = t;

        return (t.y >= EPSILON && t.x < t.y);
}

__device__
bool gtest(const float *p_vertices,
const nih::Bvh_node *p_nodes,
const uint2 *p_leaves,
const nih::Bbox3f *p_node_bboxes,
const float3 orig, const float3 dir, float4* isect)
{
        nih::uint32 d_node_id = 0;
        nih::uint32 node_index = 0;
        nih::uint32 leaf_index = 0;
        bool hit = false;
       
        const nih::Vector3f o(orig.x, orig.y, orig.z);
        const nih::Vector3f idir(1.0f/dir.x, 1.0f/dir.y, 1.0f/dir.z);

        while (d_node_id != nih::uint32(-1)) {
                nih::Bvh_node d_node = p_nodes[ d_node_id ];

                float2 t2;
                if (AABBtest(p_node_bboxes[ d_node_id ], o, idir, &t2)) {
                        if (d_node.is_leaf()) {
                                const uint2 d_leaf = p_leaves[ d_node.get_leaf_index() ];

                                for (nih::uint32 id = d_leaf.x; id < d_leaf.y; ++id) {
                                        const float3 p0 = make_float3(p_vertices[id*9+0], p_vertices[id*9+1], p_vertices[id*9+2]);
                                        const float3 p1 = make_float3(p_vertices[id*9+3], p_vertices[id*9+4], p_vertices[id*9+5]);
                                        const float3 p2 = make_float3(p_vertices[id*9+6], p_vertices[id*9+7], p_vertices[id*9+8]);

                                        if (test(p0, p1, p2, orig, dir, isect)) {
                                                hit = true;
                                        }
                                }

                                d_node_id = d_node.get_skip_node();

                                leaf_index++;
                        } else {
                                d_node_id = d_node.get_child(0);
                        }
                } else {
                        d_node_id = d_node.get_skip_node();
                }
                node_index++;
        }
       
        return hit;
}

__device__
void init(
  const uint dw,                                 
  const uint dh,
  const float3 from,
  const float3 at,
  const float3 up,
  const float angle,
  float3* ll,
  float3* u,
  float3* v)
{

  float3 l = at - from;
  float d, ax, ay;

  d = length(l);
  l = normalize(l);

  float fovx, fovy;
  fovx = angle*M_PI_360;
  fovy = (float)dh/dw * fovx;

  ax = d*tan(fovx);
  ay = d*tan(fovy);
  *v = normalize(cross(l, up));
  *u = cross(*v, l);

  *ll = l*d - *v*ax - *u*ay;

  *v *= (2.0f * ax) / dw;
  *u *= (2.0f * ay) / dh;
}

// happy.obj
__constant__ const float3 from = {-0.0054393f,0.148769f,0.245244f};
__constant__ const float3 at = {-0.0054393f,0.148769f,-0.00669f};
__constant__ const float3 up = {0.0f,1.0f,0.0f};
__constant__ const float angle = 50.0f;
       
__global__
void kernel(const float *p_vertices,
const nih::Bvh_node *p_nodes,
const uint2 *p_leaves,
const nih::Bbox3f *p_node_bboxes,
const uint dw, const uint dh)
{
  float3 ll, u, v;
  init(dw, dh, from, at, up, angle, &ll, &u, &v);

  uint x = blockDim.x*blockIdx.x + threadIdx.x;
  uint y = blockDim.y*blockIdx.y + threadIdx.y;

  float3 orig, dir;

  orig = from;
  dir = normalize(ll + u*(float)y + v*(float)x);

  const float3 fgcolor = make_float3(1.0, 1.0, 1.0);
  const float3 bgcolor = make_float3(0.0, 0.0, 0.0);

  float4 isect = {INFINITY,0.0f,0.0f,0.0f};
 
  bool result;
  result = gtest(p_vertices, p_nodes, p_leaves, p_node_bboxes, orig, dir, &isect);
 
  if (result) {
    float4 element = make_float4(fgcolor.x, fgcolor.y, fgcolor.z, 1.0); // r, g, b, a
    surf2Dwrite(element, surfRef, x*sizeof(element), y, cudaBoundaryModeTrap);
  } else {
    float4 element = make_float4(bgcolor.x, bgcolor.y, bgcolor.z, 1.0); // r, g, b, a
    surf2Dwrite(element, surfRef, x*sizeof(element), y, cudaBoundaryModeTrap);
  }
}

...

const unsigned dw = 512, dh = 512;

cudaGraphicsMapResources(1, &cuda_texture, 0);
cudaGraphicsSubResourceGetMappedArray(&cuda_array, cuda_texture, 0, 0);

cudaBindSurfaceToArray(surfRef, cuda_array);

dim3 global(dw/8,dh/16,1);
dim3 local(8,16,1);

kernel<<<global,local>>>(p_vertices, p_nodes, p_leaves, p_node_bboxes, dw, dh);

cudaGraphicsUnmapResources(1, &cuda_texture, 0);


So I guess I must be doing something wrong. But what?

Thanks
Ziu
Last edited by ziu on Tue Aug 20, 2013 9:20 pm, edited 1 time in total.

jbikker
Posts: 178
Joined: Mon Nov 28, 2011 8:18 am
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Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby jbikker » Tue Aug 20, 2013 9:17 pm

Try Aila & Laine's traversal code. It's fast. Assuming your BVH is 'good', you should be able to get hundreds of millions of rays per second.

ziu
Posts: 28
Joined: Sat Aug 17, 2013 8:46 pm

Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby ziu » Tue Aug 20, 2013 9:26 pm

jbikker wrote:Try Aila & Laine's traversal code. It's fast. Assuming your BVH is 'good', you should be able to get hundreds of millions of rays per second.


I looked at their code. They are using a bog standard SAH BVH construction algorithm (takes whole seconds instead of tens of milliseconds like this one to build the BVH) and their traversal code is seriously wacked. They have so many micro-optimizations, including to the data structures, the code gets kind of hard to read. I just wanted a simple one sample per pixel traversal with minor optimizations. If I can get that working at tens of FPS on a grid I thought it would be equally simple to do it with a BVH. The promised hundreds of FPS of Aila & Laine I was reserving for later. But I'll see what I can do.

spectral
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Joined: Wed Nov 30, 2011 2:27 pm
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Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby spectral » Wed Aug 21, 2013 6:33 am

1) The Aila & Laine use a "SBVH" (Split-BVH) that produce one of the best BVH structure you can find. It will be really faster than any other BVH. The structure creation is on the CPU.
You can take a look at the following paper : https://mediatech.aalto.fi/~timo/publications/karras2013hpg_paper.pdf

They try to build the SBVH on the GPU... there is no source code and so you have to build it by yourself (You will have only 95% of the performance of SBVH but 200% compared to your current BVH).

2) NIH is not optimized for off-line rendering, it quickly create a structure but this one will be slower than the one from the paper.

Hope it helps
Spectral
OMPF 2 global moderator

friedlinguini
Posts: 79
Joined: Thu Apr 11, 2013 5:15 pm

Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby friedlinguini » Wed Aug 21, 2013 4:27 pm

spectral wrote:1) The Aila & Laine use a "SBVH" (Split-BVH) that produce one of the best BVH structure you can find. It will be really faster than any other BVH. The structure creation is on the CPU.
You can take a look at the following paper : https://mediatech.aalto.fi/~timo/publications/karras2013hpg_paper.pdf

They try to build the SBVH on the GPU... there is no source code and so you have to build it by yourself (You will have only 95% of the performance of SBVH but 200% compared to your current BVH).

2) NIH is not optimized for off-line rendering, it quickly create a structure but this one will be slower than the one from the paper.

Hope it helps


The OP said he was interested in real-time rendering, for which SBVH is a poor fit. Of interest is https://mediatech.aalto.fi/~timo/publications/karras2013hpg_paper.pdf, which aims for a sweet spot of fast construction times and high ray throughput. I don't believe there is source available, though the authors write, "We encourage researchers interested in comparing against our implementation to contact us."

spectral
Posts: 382
Joined: Wed Nov 30, 2011 2:27 pm
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Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby spectral » Wed Aug 21, 2013 4:45 pm

friedlinguini wrote:The OP said he was interested in real-time rendering, for which SBVH is a poor fit. Of interest is https://mediatech.aalto.fi/~timo/publications/karras2013hpg_paper.pdf, which aims for a sweet spot of fast construction times and high ray throughput. I don't believe there is source available, though the authors write, "We encourage researchers interested in comparing against our implementation to contact us."


Real-time doesn't mean that he cannot precompute his BVH structure (And load it at startup), fast BVH building is nice for animation but you can have real-time within a static scene (Or you can mix...).
Spectral
OMPF 2 global moderator

friedlinguini
Posts: 79
Joined: Thu Apr 11, 2013 5:15 pm

Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby friedlinguini » Wed Aug 21, 2013 6:01 pm

spectral wrote:Real-time doesn't mean that he cannot precompute his BVH structure (And load it at startup), fast BVH building is nice for animation but you can have real-time within a static scene (Or you can mix...).


True. We don't really know a whole lot about the specific requirements. The OP implied that SBVH build time was a problem, and I'm inclined to take his word on the matter.

ziu
Posts: 28
Joined: Sat Aug 17, 2013 8:46 pm

Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby ziu » Thu Aug 22, 2013 4:13 pm

I want to have fast rebuilds so I can support animated scenes quickly. This is why I looked at the Morton code BVH GPU tree construction methods. SBVH takes seconds to construct a BVH while LBVH takes tens of milliseconds. Sure you lose somewhat on rendering speed but its a tradeoff.

That paper by Karras (HPG 2013) has performance numbers for this algorithm from Pantaleoni I am attempting to use, the HLBVH. You can see a fuller results table of the paper spectral cited here:
https://research.nvidia.com/sites/defau ... pg_aux.pdf

I am using the Buddha scene. Their results on a GeForce GTX Titan are:
HLBVH; 9 ms build time; 160.8 Mrays/sec

I get on a GeForce GTX 660 Ti these results:
HLBVH; 24 ms build time; 0.2 Mrays/sec

The build times seem to match up well given the GTX Titan has over twice the number of SM units compared to my GTX 660 Ti. But I cannot explain the disparity in rendering performance. So I must have done something wrong in the rendering phase. I cannot figure out where is my mistake and why I am rendering the BVH so slowly. Assuming I built it properly using nih in the first place.

Like I said the code I am using is all there in the public bitbucket repository.

ziu
Posts: 28
Joined: Sat Aug 17, 2013 8:46 pm

Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby ziu » Fri Aug 23, 2013 12:59 am

Yay! I figured it out! The leaf lists are lists of keys to primitive indexes! Not the direct indexes! So you need to use the key to get the correct value! It was a wonder anything rendered at all. Ah the wonders of trying to use someone else's code... :)

Image

So now it is like running at 9.25 Mrays/sec. In my guestimates I am still a factor of 5x too slow to achieve parity with the published results. Next I probably need to reduce the amount of memory indirections. Perhaps by reshuffling the triangle list after constructing the BVH since it should also improve triangle fetch coherency.

PS: I get 15.7 Mrays/sec with 4 triangles rather than the standard 16 triangles max per leaf. 28 ms construction time.

PPS: I may not get it to scale up a lot more on my board. I forgot I not only have less GFLOPS but less bandwidth as well. So I have to revise my guesstimates downwards. Still this is pretty good performance all things considered.

jbikker
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Re: Speed Issues with GPU BVH rendering

Postby jbikker » Fri Aug 23, 2013 8:11 am

I'm afraid you're much further behind atm than 5x. :) On a single 670, it's quite possible to do 300Mrays/s for a scene like that and shading like that.


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